A recent diabetes drug can spur insulin production after a meal. Exenatide (Byetta) is the synthetic version of a protein in the saliva of the Gila monster, alizard. People with type 2 diabetes inject the drug twice daily to supplement the action of metformin (Glucophage) or other oral medications.

Most common side effect: Nausea. Dosages of older drugs may need to be reduced to avoid low blood-sugar levels (hypoglycemia).

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