More than 300 men who had normal or high blood pressure (above 140/90) were given tests for verbal fluency (generating words) and short-term memory (word recall).

Result: People who were hypertensive despite taking medication performed 2.4 times worse on verbal fluency and 1.3 times worse on short-term memory.

Theory: Chronic hypertension damages small blood vessels, which interferes with blood flow to the brain.

Self-defense: Maintain a blood pressure of 140/90 or below(ideally, below 775/7) through diet and exercise and/or medication.

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